State of First Nations Learning and Education (2005)

This paper, prepared for the Canadian Council on Learning (CCL), identifies issues and challenge that shape discussions about learning priorities among First Nations people and communities.

The authors identify a number of foundational principles for First Nations learning, including the recognition that the issues faced by First Nations people have been created by a legacy of colonization and oppression that continues today. They go on to say that the concepts of knowledge, learning, evaluation, and standards need to be expanded beyond mainstream definitions in order to conform to First Nations learning theory.

Transforming First Nations education will require multiple approaches, the authors state, and must include respect for diversity and for self-representation.

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APA citation
Dr. Marie Battiste and Sheelagh McLean. State of First Nations Learning and Education 2005. Web. 18 Apr. 2021 <>
Dr. Marie Battiste & Sheelagh McLean (2005). State of First Nations Learning and Education. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from
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